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    陈春花:企业家精神本质是创新

    发布时间:2017-10-05 13:14:44
      

     

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            我们在谈企业家精神的时候,可以从很多很多定义去界定它,比如说有熊彼特的定义、德鲁克的定义,无论如何去定义企业家精神,我认为,企业家本身最重要的一个特点,或者叫企业家精神最核心的特点,就是他能够与不确定性组合在一起。

            最近一则消息引发了很大的反响:《中共中央 国务院关于营造企业家健康成长环境弘扬优秀企业家精神更好发挥企业家作用的意见》(下称《意见》)公布,中央首次以文件的形式,“肯定”企业家的作用,鼓励弘扬企业家精神人们有很多解读,但是这也意味着另外一件事情,今天我们要接受一个事实,就是环境处在不确定性的状态中。在不确定性作为最重要环境背景时,企业家精神就一定要被提出来。去年为这个议题谈过一些想法,我再一次梳理出来与大家交流。

            如何定义企业家与企业

            我们在谈企业家精神的时候,可以从很多很多定义去界定它,比如说有熊彼特的定义、德鲁克的定义,无论如何去定义企业家精神,我认为,企业家本身最重要的一个特点,或者叫企业家精神最核心的特点,就是他能够与不确定性组合在一起。所以德鲁克认为:企业家是这样一种人,他从来没有引起变化,但是他又总是把变化变为机会。
    企业家的定义最早出现是在18世纪30年代,定义认为把经济资源的效率从低提到高,这个就叫企业家。某种意义上来讲企业家其实是让有限的资源创造出更高、更大的附加价值的那一群人。
    既然谈了企业家,就要回答怎么看一个企业的问题,怎么让一家企业承载它应该能承载的社会功能。在与宋志平董事长交流的时候,他对企业界定说过一段话,他说:“企业不仅仅是创造多少利润,不仅仅是交了多少税,更重要的是员工生活是怎么样的,一个企业要让25万个员工,以及他所影响的家庭,生活的好。”这段话我很认同,的确是这样的。在我看来企业从功能属性上来讲应该有四个。

            第一个是提供产品。很多人说要做一个好企业,但是如果你连一个产品都不肯做好,很难是一个好的企业。第二个是创造利润。不谈盈利,其实已经没有承担企业的功能。盈利是对于企业经营能力的一个基本检验,即使是互联网企业或者新兴企业,最终还是要创造价值。第三个是提供就业。企业拥有整合资源的能力,也因此具有了直接和间接提供就业机会的能力。如果你能提供更多的就业,这是一个好的企业的样子。第四个是实现社会价值。企业拥有把人们的期望转化为产品的能力,拥有给人们带来美好生活的能力。

            作为一个企业来讲必须把这四个功能属性都完成,在我的眼里才认为你是真正的企业。所以在这样的一个概念下,我们在谈企业家精神、企业家才会得到真实的理解。

            企业家精神本质是创新

            企业家精神的核心是什么?答案很明确,是“创新”。这既是熊彼特的理解,也是德鲁克的理解。德鲁克的《创新与企业家精神》一书中,有一段话深深启发我,所以在我自己的书《成为价值型企业》一书中,也用了这个观点来启动这本书的核心思想。这个观点就是德鲁克在回答为什么美国的经济可以持续繁荣的一个结论,在他看来,是因为美国社会诞生了一种人,这种人叫“企业家”。他说因为美国出现了企业家经济,使得美国出现了一个繁荣和令人兴奋的社会现象。

            这个观点给我的触动非常大。中国的经济可以持续增长40年,同样令人兴奋的是,中国的确诞生了这个“企业家群体”。为什么这些企业家可以推动经济繁荣持续增长呢?核心就是“创新”。真正企业家精神的创新内核到底是什么?我认为有五个方面:

            1···)创新一定是实践的创新。熊彼特很清楚地告诉大家创新必须回到真正的检验当中。所以在谈创新的时候,我第一个需要大家知道的就是创新必须是一个实践的创新,如果仅仅谈理念创新、谈观念创新、谈思想创新,我只能称之为那是创新的准备,还不能称之为创新。

            2···)第二,创新必须是一个基本的工作形态。如果创新成为一个基本工作形态时,所有的工作品质,所有工作的产出,就会符合对于创新的理解,就会有新的东西出现。

            3···)第三,创新一定是行动与结果的关系。这是我要特别强调的部分,真正的改变是在行动和结果当中体现的,不是看你说什么,而是看你做什么。你在谈的创新,就看创新是否转化为行动与结果。如果没有行动、没有结果,整天谈创新没有任何的意义。

            4···)专注与投入才会成为创新者。我们自己要成为一个创新者,最重要的表现是什么?是专注与投入。以前我说过一个词“静动”,没有这种特别深刻的静,是无法感受那个深切的动。动与静之间不是对立,是一个完全融合的,绝对动之下就会有绝对的静,如静水深流。动静之间其实是完全融合的。它们两个融合到最高点的时候,两个都到极致就完全合一了。有人用“痴迷者”表达创新者,我认同,创新一定就是奋斗、投入、专注。没有做这样的奋斗、投入和专注,你是得不到对创新的这种真切变化的理解。

            5···)使命感与责任感。最后,创新是使命感跟责任感一起驱动的。所以仅仅有责任感还不够,应该有更大的使命驱动的力量,才可以拥有创新能力。

     

            来源|春暖花开--文|陈春花


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